Middle Islamic Faynan in BASOR
Oh right. I meant to post something here right when this paper came out, but didn’t, in part because of the beginning of a new quarter here at UCSD – as well as my first teaching assignment in two years, preparation for WAC 7, and some post-excavation things that needed to be taken care of – and in part simply because I completely forgot. So, here we are, several weeks later, and I’m finally getting around to doing it.
Anyway, as I said, I’ve just published a paper. The authors are myself, Tom Levy – my advisor – and our Jordanian colleague and co-PI of ELRAP, Mohammad Najjar, and it appears in the most recent issue of the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. If you have access to BASOR through JSTOR, you a) can just click that link and download the paper and b) have probably already seen the latest issue anyway.
The paper is, essentially, a heavily-revised version of my master’s thesis, and so represents the culmination of a few years worth of work getting the Islamic Faynan portion of ELRAP off the ground and running. Primarily, what that involved was a (preliminary) analysis of the ceramics collected during the 2002 JHF (the Jabal Hamrat Fidan Project; ELRAP’s predecessor) surveys of Wadi al-Ghuwayb and Wadi al-Jariya (I’d link to a PDF, but that doesn’t seem to exist at the moment; there’s this, though), focusing on the material collected at Khirbat Nuqayb al-Asaymir (KNA), a site I’ve mentioned before. Our main goals here, in addition to finally presenting the later material from these surveys, were (1) to tighten up the chronology of KNA with a large ceramic sample (1300 sherds exactly) and (2) to put forward some ideas about why copper production was revived in this period.
(1) In the paper we argue, based on the ceramics and other evidence, that KNA is primarily an early 13th century site. This isn’t a terribly huge redating – most previous work assumed it was primarily a 13th century site – but it has some interesting historical consequences, as we make no assumption that there’s an early Mamluk period occupation at the site. We left ourselves a bit of room to adjust this, and pointed out that we couldn’t really rule out a later 13th century date, and that the late 12th century also seemed like a possibility. Now that we’ve excavated the site for two seasons, I’m glad that we left ourselves that room, as the ceramic assemblage has surprised us a bit. In one sense, the excavated ceramic assemblage is rather different from the survey assemblage in terms of the wares that make it up (though I don’t want to talk about this too much until we’ve had more time to go over the material and compile better frequency data), but it’s also forcing us to think about dates that are a bit earlier, again. That in itself was interesting, though not entirely unexpected, and we’ll be addressing the point in at least one upcoming paper.
(2) We were rather dissatisfied with existing explanations for the re-emergence of the Faynan copper industry in the Middle Islamic period, which we thought were either overly dismissive or somewhat anachronistic. Our suggestion, instead, is that mining in Faynan primarily supported the sugar industry. This would have gone primarily toward making boiling vessels – known in Arabic as dusūt – for the cane juice. This image, from flickr user ciamabue, shows an iron boiling vessel from the U.S. It’s not an exact match – for one thing, the vessels we’re thinking of are made of copper, obviously – but the image at least gives you a sense of scale. 13th century dusut were about 3 feet in diameter and could weigh as much as 550 pounds, so we aren’t exactly talking about the Mauviel in your kitchen. This is something that would require a significant amount of copper.
So, that’s a short summary of two of our key points from this paper. The project is still a work in progress – and will eventually become my dissertation – but the early stages are now published and out there.
Jones, Ian W. N., Thomas E. Levy, and Mohammad Najjar 2012 Khirbat Nuqayb al-Asaymir and Middle Islamic Metallurgy in Faynan: Surveys of Wadi al-Ghuwayb and Wadi al-Jariya in Faynan, Southern Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 368:67-102. Levy, Thomas E., Russell B. Adams, James D. Anderson, Mohammad Najjar, Neil Smith, Yoav Arbel, Lisa Soderbaum, and Adolfo Muniz 2003 An Iron Age Landscape in the Edomite Lowlands: Archaeological Surveys Along Wādī al-Ghuwayb and Wādī al-Jāriya, Jabal Ḥamrat Fīdān, Jordan, 2002. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 47:247-277.